Series: Organic Chemistry
Carboxylic acids are carbon compounds containing polar carboxyl functional groups. Carboxylic acids form strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds and have high boiling points . The hydrogen bonding is also responsible for the high solubility of smaller carboxylic acid molecules in water. Show Less
In the E-Z system for geometric isomers, if two groups or atoms of higher priority are on the same side of the double bond, then they are called Z isomers, and when they are on the opposite sides of the double bond, then they are called E isomers. The priority of groups or atoms is decided on the basis of the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules. Show Less
An elimination reaction involves the removal of two groups or atoms from a saturated compound to form an unsaturated compound. Elimination reactions are important as a method for the preparation of alkenes. Some examples of elimination reactions are the dehydration of alcohols, the dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides, and the dehyrogenation of alkanes. Alkyl halides undergo elimination reaction by two mechanisms: E1 or unimolecular elimination and E2 or bimolecular elimination. Show Less
Nucleophilic addition reactions are an important class of reactions that allow the interconversion of carbon-oxygen double bondsC=O into a range of important functional groups, mainly aldehydes and ketones.
Nucleophilic substitution is a reaction in which an electron rich group, called nucleophile, substitutes an outgoing group called leaving group, which carries with it the bonding electron pair. Good leaving groups are weak bases.Alkyl halides undergo nucleophilic substitution with various nucleophiles to form alcohols, ethers, esters, thiols, sulphides, amines, azides and nitriles Show Less
Aldehydes and ketones are compounds containing a carbonyl group. The carbonyl group, being polar, affects the physical properties of aldehydes and ketones. The boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are higher than those of alkanes, but lower than those of alcohols. The lower aldehydes and ketones are soluble in water. Show Less
The anti-Markovnikov rule describes the regiochemistry where the substituent is bonded to a less substituted carbon, rather than the more substitued carbon. This process is quite unusual, as carboncations which are commonly formed during alkene, or alkyne reactions tend to favor the more substitued carbon. Show Less
Structural isomers are molecules having the same molecular formula but different structural formulae. Chain, positional, and functional group isomerisms are the three categories of structural isomerism. Structural isomers differ in physical properties such as boiling point. Show Less
Substitution nucleophilic bimolecular or SN2 reactions occur in a single step. In this reaction, both bond - making and bond - breaking occur at the same time. It’s a second order or bimolecular reaction, in which the rate of the reaction depends upon the concentration of two reactants. The order of the reactivity of the alkyl halides in SN2 reactions increases from the tertiary alkyl halides to the primary alkyl halides. Show Less
Substitution reaction, also known as replacement reaction, is a chemical reaction that involves the replacement of an atom or a group of atoms by another atom or group of atoms.